## Basic Concepts

## Set Theory

## Graph Theory

## Elementary Algebra

## Linear Algebra

### Vector Spaces

### Systems Of Linear Equations

### Matrices

## Operations Research

### Financial Concepts

### Knapsack And Cutting Stock Problems

### Simplex Algorithm

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## On Input Types

Mathematical notation employs various symbols, including {}, [], (), /, or ., to represent different mathematical concepts.

Curly braces {} typically denote sets, which are collections of distinct elements. The elements are listed within the braces, separated by commas. For example, {1, 2, 3} represents a set containing the elements 1, 2, and 3.

Square brackets [] are often used to represent vectors or arrays. A vector is an ordered collection of elements, usually shown as a column or row. For instance, [1, 2, 3] can represent a row vector or a column vector with elements 1, 2, and 3.

Square brackets [] and parentheses () can also indicate lists or sequences of elements. A list is an ordered collection of items, commonly enclosed within brackets or parentheses, and separated by commas. For example, [1, 2, 3] or (1, 2, 3) can denote a list with the elements 1, 2, and 3.

When working with fractions in mathematical expressions, the forward slash / is frequently used to represent division. It shows that the numerator (the number before the slash) is divided by the denominator (the number after the slash).

Decimals in mathematical notation are commonly represented using a dot .. The dot separates the whole number part from the fractional part of a number. For example, the decimal representation of one and a half is written as 1.5.